Movin’ On Up: Hermit Crabs & the World’s Only Beachfront Social Housing

(Via: )

Common Name: The Hermit Crab

A.K.A.: Superfamily Paguroidea

Vital Stats:

  • There are around 1100 species of hermit crabs in 120 genera
  • Range in size from only a few millimetres to half a foot in length
  • Some larger species can live for up to 70 years
  • Most species are aquatic, although there are some tropical terrestrial species

Found: Generally throughout the temperate and tropical oceans, in both shallow and deep areas (I was unable to find more specific data on this.)

Trop. & Temp. Oceans

It Does What?!

If there’s one thing nature loves, it’s symmetry. Sometimes radial symmetry, as we see in starfish or sea anemones; sometimes bilateral symmetry, as in mammals and insects, which have a right half and a left half. External asymmetry is extremely rare in living organisms, and when it does occur, it is generally in a minor form, such as a bird species with beaks bent to the side, or a type of flower with oddly distributed stamens. One of the very few groups with entire bodies that lack symmetry are the gastropods; specifically, the snails. They develop helical shells with asymmetrical bodies to match.

caption (Via: Wikimedia Commons)
The shells also hide how ridiculous they look naked.
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

But this post isn’t about snails. It’s one thing to evolve an unusual asymmetrical bodyplan to go with your asymmetrical home. It’s another to evolve an asymmetrical bodyplan to go with somebody else’s home. Which brings us to the hermit crab. When snails die in ways that leave behind perfectly good shells on the beach, these guys literally queue up for the chance to move in. Hermit crabs are part of the decapod order of crustaceans, as crabs are, but are not in fact true crabs, and unlike most other crustaceans, they lack any kind of hard, calcified plating on their abdomens (think shrimp shells). Instead, they have a soft, spirally curved lower body that fits perfectly into a snail shell, with muscles that allow them to clasp onto the interior of the shell. Paleobiologists have found that hermit crabs have been living in found shells for over 150 million years, and that they made the move to snail shells when their original shell-producer, the ammonite, went extinct. Living in shells has strongly restricted their morphological evolution, meaning the crabs of aeons ago look pretty similar to the crabs of today, because their housing situation doesn’t allow a lot of change.

caption (Via:
Housing shortages hurt everyone.

Back to those line-ups I mentioned. Unoccupied snail shells are a limited resource, and an unarmoured crustacean is an easy lunch, so of course a lot of fighting goes on over them; crabs will actually gang up on an individual with a higher quality shell and just yank the poor bugger out. But it actually gets much more complex than that… these little pseudo-crabs aren’t as dim and thuggish as you might think. You see, as a hermit crab grows over the course of its life, it needs a series of progressively larger shells in which to live. A crab stuck in an undersized shell is stunted in its growth and is much more vulnerable to predation, since it can’t fully withdraw into its armour. The easiest way to find your next home? Locate a slightly larger hermit crab about to trade up and grab its shell afterward. This is how the crabs form what are called “vacancy chains.” A series of individuals will line themselves up in order of size (I’ve seen groups of schoolchildren unable to perform this task), waiting for hours sometimes, and as the largest crab moves to its new shell, each successive crab will enter the newly vacated one. Brilliant… new homes for everybody, and no one gets hurt. In fact, if a given crab chances upon a new shell that it judges to be too large for its current size, it will actually wait next to the shell for a larger crab to come along and a vacancy chain to form. That’s pretty impressive reasoning for a brain smaller than a pea.

[Fun Fact: Larger aquatic hermit crabs sometimes form symbiotic relationships with sea anemones; the anemone lives on the crab’s shell, protecting its host from predators with its deadly sting, while the crab shares its food with the gelatinous bodyguard.]

Today in Words You Didn’t Think Existed:
carcinisation / car·si·nə·ˈzā·shən / n.
a process by which an organism evolves from a non-crablike form into a crablike form.

That’s right, glossophiles, thanks to a British zoologist, we actually have a specific word for turning into a crab. English rules.

Says Who?

  • Angel (2000) J. of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 243: 169-184
  • Cunningham et al. (1992) Nature 355: 539-542
  • Fotheringham (1976) J. of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 23(3): 299-305
  • Rotjan et al. (2010) Behavioral Ecology 21(3): 639-646
  • Tricarico & Gherardi (2006) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 60: 492-500
Say hello to my little friend. (Via:
“Say hello to my little friend.”

Back to the Deep, Part 2


Common Name: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises

A.K.A.:  Order Cetacea

Vital Stats:

  • While the lifespan of most whale species is unknown, evidence indicates bowhead whales can reach ages of around 200 years.
  • Sexual maturity in whales occurs at around 7-10 years of age.

Found: Throughout the world’s oceans, save the very northernmost regions


It Does What?!

Last time, we looked at how whales evolved from a deer-like creature the size of a housecat into the aquatic behemoths they are today. This week, we’ll cover a couple of the odds and ends of whale weirdness.

One important thing to understand about evolution – particularly in cases of a major habitat shift, as we see in whales – is that it’s not an orderly or “well-thought out” process. A good analogy is to think of an old building that’s being renovated and rewired. New additions may be built onto old structures and new wiring overlaid on old plans, creating a product very different, and often much less efficient, from what would have been created were a new building made from scratch. Because you have to work with what’s already there.

Whale respiration is an excellent example of this point. When the ancestors of modern cetaceans took to the water, developing gills and breathing like fish wasn’t an option, because the machinery wasn’t intact… they were already much too far down the evolutionary path of a terrestrial mammal. What they could develop were more efficient lungs and greater control over how they used them. For humans, breathing is an unconscious and largely involuntary act – it just happens, whether we think about it or not, and we can’t choose to stop doing it for very long. Even if you were to hold your breath until you passed out, you’d just start breathing again the moment you lost control (take note, parents of tantrum-prone toddlers). For whales on the other hand, respiration has become voluntary; they breathe because they choose to do so. Life underwater and the need to hunt without distraction made this ability more valuable than the safety of an involuntary mechanism.

caption (Via:)
(Via: The Telegraph)

There is, of course, a major drawback. For whales, control over respiration came at the price of ever being able to fully fall asleep. If a cetacean were to sleep as we do, it would stop breathing and drown. As a result, they’ve evolved the ability to sleep with one brain hemisphere at a time. So while one hemisphere rests, the other is awake, one eye is open, and the whale is in motion, surfacing periodically. In fact, they appear not to experience REM sleep at all, meaning that these creatures gained their mastery of the oceans, very literally, at the cost of their dreams.

Another interesting problem during whale evolution was that of temperature regulation. Anybody who’s been swimming knows that even relatively warm water can start to give you the chills after a while, especially if you’re not expending a lot of energy. This is because water is an excellent conductor of heat, and will constantly draw warmth away from the skin’s surface. Now once you get into the sunless depths of the ocean, to say nothing of the polar oceans that many whales live in, things get very chilly very fast. To counteract this, whales have developed a thick, insulating layer of fat that holds in the heat and keeps their core body temperature from plummeting. Easy peasy, right?

But what happens when the whale expends a lot of energy, say, on an intense feeding session, and builds up too much heat? Ever shovel snow in a heavy winter coat? After a few minutes, you’re ready to tear the coat off because you’re sweating so much. Not so easy when the coat’s under your skin. Well, researchers have recently discovered what they think may be the answer to this problem.

caption (Via: National Geographic)
That’s 144 inches, in case you were wondering.
(By: Craig George, Via: National Geographic)

In the bowhead whale, which lives exclusively in frigid arctic and sub-arctic waters (and therefore has a great deal of insulation), biologists found a mysterious, twelve foot long organ positioned along the roof of the mouth, made out of what is, essentially, the same tissue found inside penises. That is to say, spongy tissue filled with a lot of blood vessels which can expand as it fills with blood. So how does a giant mouth-penis help a whale cool off? It’s quite clever, really. The brain being the major point of concern for overheating, the organ, called the corpus cavernosum maxillaris, lies directly beneath it. Hot blood is pumped into the organ, filling the spongy tissue, as the whale opens its mouth, letting in a great volume of icy water which surrounds the engorged tissue, quickly drawing off much of the heat. The cetacean equivalent of a cold shower. This cooled blood then drains from the organ and lowers the temperature around the brain.

And if this extra-penis-as-thermoregulator wasn’t cool enough, it seems to have a secondary function as well. The organ is also packed with sensitive nerve endings (naturally…), which the researchers believe the whales may use to determine the prey density in a given area (bowheads are filter feeders), helping them to decide whether to remain in a location and feed, or move on in search of better pickings.

Fun Facts:

  • The ability to “sleep” with one eye open was likely also highly valuable to the much smaller ancestors of the cetaceans, for whom predation was a bigger problem.
  • Whales have fleshy nasal plugs with which they can plug their blowholes while diving.
  • Oceanic dolphins have the highest relative brain size among extant cetaceans.

Says Who?

  • Ford et al. (2013) The Anatomical Record 296: 701-708
  • Gatesy & O’Leary (2001) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(10): 562-570
  • Gatesy et al. (2013) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66: 479-506
  • Lyamin et al. (2008) Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 32: 1451-1484
  • Uhen (2010) Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38: 189-219
  • Zimmer (2013) The Loom, March 4th.

Back to the Deep, Part 1

(Via: Wikimedia Commons)
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Common Name: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises

A.K.A.:  Order Cetacea of Class Mammalia

Vital Stats:

  • Consists of 88 living species
  • Order is divided into Odontoceti, the toothed whales (73 sp.), and Mysticeti, the baleen whales (15 sp.)
  • Odontoceti includes both dolphins and porpoises
  • The largest whale, a blue whale, can grow up to 30m (98’) in length and weigh as much as 20 elephants

Found: Throughout the world’s oceans, save the very northernmost regions


It Does What?!

caption (By: Nobu Tamura, via: Wikimedia Commons)
The twenty pound vermin that went on to rule the oceans.
(By: Nobu Tamura, via: Wikimedia Commons)

Picture it: the time is just over 50 million years before the present – the early Eocene – the climate is much warmer than today, undergoing a period of rapid global warming… it is the Age of Mammals. On the shores of the tropical Tethys Sea, in what would eventually become India, a small, deer-like animal, not much larger than a housecat, wades into the water and dives briefly to retrieve a fish before returning to dry land. This has become a successful strategy for its species, avoiding competition from other mammals by eating marine life. Well-fed, the creatures reproduce rapidly, creating competition amongst themselves. Those individuals with greater lung capacity and better swimming ability catch more food, outcompeting those who don’t. Over great stretches of time, characteristics enabling speed and skill under water become more important than those enabling life on land, and selection tilts in favour of a longer, more lithe body, smaller hindlimbs, stronger forelimbs for paddling, and less fur.

caption (Via: AccessScience)
Swimming: great for a slim figure.
(Via: AccessScience)

Millions of years pass as our small hunter’s descendants eventually lose the ability to ever return to land. They have no fur now… it isn’t useful for retaining heat beneath the waves. Fat is, though, and this begins to accumulate in thicker layers under their bare skin. Their front legs are nearly inflexible at the joints, trading range of movement for strength and widening into precision rudders to control direction as they swim. In concert, the tail becomes more muscular and widens into flukes at the tip, propelling them forward powerfully with each stroke. Their back legs – unneeded – atrophy, gradually losing both size and bone structure, until the foot is completely gone. A small stub lingers for a time before the last vestigial bones simply remain inside the smooth body wall, evidence of a distant terrestrial past. The nasal opening has migrated to the top of the head for ease in surface breathing. Ten million years have passed since the scene on the shore, and we now have our first fully aquatic whale.

Of course, much still had to happen before we arrived at the whales of today. In the time since aquatic mammals first arose, a major division took place within the Cetacea. One group, the toothed whales, or Odontoceti, continued to hunt and eat fish and large marine fauna, including squid and even other whales. To aid in finding their prey, these whales developed echolocation, the use of projected sound to create an image of the surrounding area, thereby becoming the loudest mammal, with vocalisations of more than 180 decibels (a jackhammer tops out at about 120dB). The large bulge we see on the forehead of dolphins and other toothed cetaceans is an organ called a ‘melon’ (because they couldn’t think of anything more science-y sounding just then), which is thought to help direct and focus these sounds.

caption (Via: Wikimedia Commons)
Who needs teeth when you can have a broom in your mouth?
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Being a top-level predator isn’t very energetically efficient, though, and there isn’t always enough prey to go around. So at some point, one group of whales began to move toward a different strategy. The origins of the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, are still a bit unclear, but these animals switched from hunting large fauna to eating colossal numbers of tiny sea creatures such as krill. In order to do this, the whales lost their teeth and developed baleen in their place. Baleen is essentially a fine-toothed comb that filters small animals from the water as it passes. The whale takes a giant mouthful of water and pushes it out against the combs until only food remains. While this may seem less efficient than just grabbing a big fish and eating it, filter feeding is what allowed the largest whales to evolve to their present size. The blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, is believed to be the largest animal which has ever existed on Earth, and it got that way eating mostly shrimp the size of your thumbnail. Amazing, isn’t it?

Now that we’ve covered how they got that way, tune in next time for part two, where we’ll explore the many weird and wonderful aspects of life as a modern whale.

Fun Facts:

  • Baleen whales still have teeth during the embryonic stage of their development, much as human fetuses briefly develop tails.
  • Toothed whales do not chew their food; it is eaten whole or torn into large pieces and swallowed. This may be related to the fact that, unlike most mammals, they have only one set of teeth.

Says Who?

  • Gatesy & O’Leary (2001) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(10): 562-570
  • Gatesy et al. (2013) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66: 479-506
  • Lyamin et al. (2008) Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 32: 1451-1484
  • Uhen (2010) Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38: 189-219

EVOLUTION TAG TEAM, Part 3: Coral Polyps & the Garden Within

The third in an ongoing series of biology’s greatest duos. (Check out Parts One and Two)

(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Common Name: Coral Polyps

  • A.K.A.: Class Anthozoa, Subclass Hexacorallia

Common Name: Coral Algae

  • A.K.A.: Genus Symbiodinium

Vital Stats:

  • Polyps grow to a length of only a few centimetres, depending on species
  • Coral can grow outward at a rate of up to 10cm (4”) per year
  • The Great Barrier Reef stretches over 2000km (1243 mi) and can be seen from space

Found: Various coastal areas; largest reefs surrounding Australia, Oceania, and the Caribbean

It Does What?!

If you’ve ever been told that coral reefs are alive, then looked at one and felt a bit sceptical that this chuck of colourful rock could be a living thing… well, good for you, because you’re actually mostly right. The vast majority of the volume of a coral reef is, in fact, nonliving inorganic mineral (calcium carbonate, specifically). The amazing thing about coral isn’t so much what it’s made of, but what’s going on on the surface. You see, that oddly-shaped, porous rock is actually a communal exoskeleton produced and excreted over time by hundreds of thousands of polyps living in the tiny, cup-shaped depressions on the surface.

“Breaded, with a side of chips, please.”
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Looking like tiny jellyfish (and belonging to the same phylum), the polyps hide in the stony sanctuary they’ve made, letting only their tentacles project. These tentacles are tipped with stinging cells which can inject a powerful venom into any prey foolish enough to swim within reach. This prey can range in size from microscopic plankton to small fish. That’s right, coral eats fish. Watch where you stick your toes.

So where does the ‘duo’ part come in? Despite their ability to snatch passing sea creatures and eat them, coral polyps actually get only a small part of their caloric intake this way. Impressively, these guys managed to find a diet that requires even less effort than just reaching out and grabbing stuff. Who needs movement when you can just photosynthesize, like plants do? The polyps have developed a symbiosis with a type of single-celled alga (called zooxanthellae) that allows them to do just that.

The algae start out as free-living cells drifting through the water. They are eaten by the coral polyp, but instead of being digested, they are able to enter the cells lining its digestive tract. Since the polyps are transparent to begin with, all they have to do is expose their bodies to sunlight in order to allow the algae to produce sugars by photosynthesis (this is why reefs form in relatively shallow waters). The majority of the sugars made by the symbiont are then absorbed by the polyp.

And what do the algae get out of this arrangement? A couple of things. First, they get a safe place to live, and won’t get eaten by something that can digest them. Second, they get nutrients, in the form of carbon dioxide and nitrogen compounds, both natural waste products of the polyp’s metabolism. Still, sometimes as much as 30% of the cells in a polyp are algal cells, and this puts a stain on the host’s physiology.

“I’ve just got a lot going on right now.”
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Maybe you’ve heard of “coral bleaching” as one of the symptoms of pollution around reefs. Bleaching happens when additional stresses (like pollution) get to be a bit too much for the polyps to handle. They can’t change the water purity, so instead, they offload the stressor they can control- the algae. Getting rid of the photosynthetic cells also gets rid of much of the characteristic colour of the reef, hence the term ‘bleaching’. In the short term, this is a smart move. It increases the polyp’s chance of survival during brief crises, and new algae can always be taken on when the host is ready. The real problems start when the environmental stress persists, and the polyp never takes on new algae. Eventually, it can’t sustain itself and dies, as those in a tenth of the world’s reefs already have. At least there’s still hope for these areas; if conditions improve, new colonies can be formed using the old reef as a foundation. The Great Barrier Reef, for example, is considered to be between 6000 and 8000 years old. However, the modern structure has developed atop an older, dead reef system, thought to be over half a million years old. Time enough for us to clean up our act, maybe.

[Fun Fact: Coral polyps only reproduce sexually to start new colonies. Within a single piece of coral, all the polyps are genetically identical clones, produced by polyps dividing in half and then re-growing their lost tissues.]

Says Who?

  • CoRIS- Coral Reef Information System
  • Fransolet et al. (2012) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 420-421:1-7
  • Piper (2007) Extraordinary Animals. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut.
  • Wooldridge (2010) BioEssays 32(7):615-625

    The little-known “Lady Gaga Coral”
    (Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Thank a Horseshoe Crab


Common Name: Horseshoe Crab

A.K.A.: Family Limulidae

Vital Stats:

  • Four extant species of horseshoe crab in three genera (Limulus, Carcinoscorpius, and Tachypleus)
  • Females are larger than males, and can reach up to 60cm (24”) long in some species
  • Believed to live between 20 and 40 years

Found: Coastal waters of southeast Asia, Oceania, and eastern North America

It Does What?!

Like the platypus and the lungfish, horseshoe crabs are what biologists refer to as “living fossils,” meaning their basic form has gone essentially unchanged for many millions of years. In the case of horseshoe crabs, fossils as old as 445 million years have been found that are quite similar to the extant species of today.

Despite their common name, the Limulidae aren’t true crabs. They’re arthropods, like crabs, but are actually more closely related to spiders and scorpions. In fact, beneath that tough shell, they do look quite spider-like. If spiders had tails, that is.

Basically a tarantula in combat gear.
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Horseshoe crabs live in shallow coastal waters, feeding off worms and molluscs from the ocean floor. They are able to feed in near complete darkness at night due to a remarkable visual system. The creatures have three different types of eyes – compound, median, and rudimentary – located to both sides and to the front of their shell. What’s more, their compound eyes become a million times more sensitive to light at night than they are during the day. Since that’s roughly how much less light they have to work with at night, the crabs are able to see equally well at night and during the day.

Most people who have observed horseshoe crabs know them from their unusual breeding habits. Each spring and early summer, male crabs will search out a mate and attach themselves to the female’s shell using a special modified leg. Then, during the highest tides of the year, usually at night, the females crawl up onto shore by the hundreds, carrying their male cargo. Having picked a spot that’s moist, but not so low as to be washed away with the tide, they dig a nest into the sand and lay their eggs. The attached males get first dibs at fertilising the pre-laid eggs, but must share the task with numerous mate-less onlookers who rush in to get their shot at fatherhood as well (crabs are so uncouth). Since eggs number in the tens of thousands per female, many will probably be successful. Most of these thousands of eggs, however, will become food for migratory birds, who appreciate the extra protein snack on their long journeys. After a month or so, the uneaten eggs will hatch into larvae, which remain on the beach in groups for a couple of weeks before moulting into juvenile horseshoe crabs and finally moving into the water.

Horseshoe crabs, making more horseshoe crabs.
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Now you might be thinking, “That’s all well and good, but what can horseshoe crabs do for me?” Well, as it turns out, these creatures are some of the most prolific blood donors on Earth (whether they like it or not). Like our friend Mr. Spock, horseshoe crabs have copper-based blood, rather than the iron-based concoction favoured by humans. They are literally blue-blooded. And instead of white blood cells to fight off infection, they have amebocytes. These amebocytes are so valuable in detecting certain types of bacterial infections in humans that a quart of horseshoe crab blood is worth approximately $15,000 US. Crabs are caught, transported to a lab, and drained of about 30% of their blood before being released. The company behind this 50 million dollar per year industry states that only about 3% of the quarter million crabs die from the procedure annually, while other studies have found the number to be nearer to 15% (read more about it here). Knowing who’s right may become very important, as horseshoe crab populations are declining worldwide, additionally affecting the migratory birds that feed on their eggs. Either way, next time you survive an E. coli infection, thank a horseshoe crab.

No, no… we don’t mind. Really.

[Fun Fact: Horseshoe crabs are thought to be the closest living relative of the extinct trilobite.]

[Also, here’s a cool video of (who else?) Sir David Attenborough explaining the mating habits of horseshoe crabs.]

Says Who?

Anglerfish: Absorbing Ladies and their Freeloading Mates

(Via: Inglestic)

Common Name: Anglerfish

A.K.A.: Order Lophiiformes

Vital Stats:

  • Comprised of 322 species in 18 different families
  • Most range in size from that of a ping pong ball to that of a football
  • Some can reach over a metre in length and weigh 27kg (59lbs.)

Found: Throughout the world’s oceans, mostly in deeper regions

It Does What?!

The more dissimilar a creature’s habitat is to our own, the more dissimilar we have to expect its lifestyle to be, so when we plumb the pitch black, cold, high pressure depths of the ocean, we’re counting on some serious weirdness. The anglerfish goes above and beyond in this department.

First off, have you seen these things? They’re essentially a set of mobile fangs. And what’s with that thing hanging down off their heads? It’s all part of an efficient setup that allows the anglerfish to survive in an environment with minimal light and sparse prey. These fish are what biologists call “sit and wait” predators. In order to avoid expending precious energy, they hang motionless in the water, waiting for something edible and foolish to approach. The dangly piece is actually a lure, filled with bioluminescent (glowing) bacteria. Seeing the glow and thinking it might be food, curious creatures draw near and are quickly gobbled up by the anglerfish. That enormous mouth, combined with a flexible bone structure, allows the fish to swallow very large prey, relative to its own size.

Really… how unobservant must their prey be?
(Via: National Geographic)

Amazingly, the anglerfish’s horrifying appearance isn’t its most notably odd trait. Not even close. You see, all these characteristics we’ve discussed so far are only present in the female of the species. The male is a different creature entirely. Many times smaller than the female, you’d be hard pressed to immediately recognise a male anglerfish as even being part of the same species. In fact, researchers initially thought they were babies. Their adult form is only 6-10mm (0.24-0.39”) long in some species, placing male anglerfish among the smallest vertebrates on earth.

What’s more, they don’t have a functional digestive system… they literally don’t ever eat. Sustained only by the energy in his own tissues, the young male must find a female and mate before he starves to death. To aid in his quest, he has very well-developed eyes and huge nostrils, which allow him to follow the pheromone trail of a potential mate.

The somewhat less intimidating male anglerfish.
(Via: Anglerfish Info)

Now it gets weird. Upon locating a female, the male swims up and latches on to her with his teeth, usually on the lower side of her body. He then starts to release an enzyme which dissolves both his mouth and her skin, right down to their respective blood supplies. Soon, their bodies actually fuse together, and blood from the female begins to nourish the now-parasitic male. In some species, this fusion goes all the way to the base of the male’s skull, giving him the appearance of having his entire head absorbed into his mate’s body. Once fused, the male undergoes a growth spurt, thanks to his new food source, but his internal organs, as well as his eyes and nostrils, degenerate and atrophy. The exception, of course, being his testicles, which grow along with the rest of his outer body.

A female anglerfish and her clingy boyfriend.
(Via: Wikimedia Commons)

Her mate degenerated down to a mere sperm-producing external organ, the female anglerfish is now essentially a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite. With anywhere between one and eight males attached to her, she has an abundant supply of sperm available whenever she has ripe eggs to be fertilized. As for the males, they will “live” for as long as the female lives, and continue to reproduce indefinitely.

[Fun Fact: the species Ceratias holboelli has the most extreme size difference between the sexes. Females are more than 60 times the length and about half a million times heavier than the males.]

[And if you like your science lessons in cartoon form, be sure to check out this out.]

Says Who?

Come to Mama!

What’s the matter, louse got your tongue? (Cymothoa exigua)

Via: Parasite of the Day

Common Name: The Tongue-Eating Louse

A.K.A.: Cymothoa exigua

Vital Stats:

  • Females are 8-29mm long by 4-14mm wide (0.3”-1.1” x 0.16”-0.55”)
  • Males are 7.5-15mm long by 3-7mm wide (0.3-0.6” x 0.12”-0.28”)
  • Preys on 8 species of fish from 4 different families

Found: In the Eastern Pacific, between the Southern U.S. and Ecuador

It Does What?!

With a name like “Tongue-Eating Louse”, you know this is going to be viscerally horrible, but bear with me… it’s also pretty neat. Despite the name, these aren’t actually lice, but parasitic crustaceans known as isopods. While there are dozens of species in the genus Cymothoa, most are parasites which live in the gills of fish and are, relatively speaking, unremarkable. But Cymothoa exigua is something special. While the male of the species (and this is a slippery term, as they can change sex when necessary) lives in fish gills, the female has developed an altogether original strategy.

Try to enjoy a tuna sandwich now.

Entering through the gills, the female takes up a position at the back of the fish’s mouth and attaches herself to the base of its tongue. She then pierces the tongue with her front appendages and begins to consume the blood inside it. Over time, the lack of bloodflow causes the tongue to slowly wither up and fall off. What’s left is a stump consisting of about 10% of the original tongue (yes, someone measured this). The parasite can now attach herself to the stump using her seven pairs of hook-like pereopods (read: ‘feet’) and actually begin to function as the fish’s tongue.

What’s really amazing is how well this seems to work. The parasite has evolved a body shape which closely matches the curves of the inside of the host’s mouth. Unlike our tongues, a fish tongue has no real musculature or flexibility; its only real function is to hold food against the fish’s teeth. With the parasite in place, the host is able to use its body to do exactly that. While the isopod is thought to feed on the fish’s blood, researchers have found that infected hosts have normal body weights and typical amounts of food in their digestive tract when caught. This is, to date, the only known case of a parasite functionally replacing an organ in its animal host.

Once it’s in there, this thing’s not coming out without a fight.
Via: This Site

Because edible snapper fish are amongst the host species of C. exigua, there have been cases of the parasite showing up in people’s supermarket purchases, including one person who thought they had been poisoned after eating one. So are they dangerous? Not to eat, no, but researchers tell us they can give a nasty little bite, given the opportunity. So the moral of this story is: if you bring home a fish for dinner and see an evil-looking parasite posing as its tongue… don’t stick your finger in its mouth.


Says Who?

  • Brusca & Gilligan (1983) Copeia 3: 813-816
  • Brusca (1981) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 73(2): 117-199
  • Williams & Bunkly-Williams (2003) Noticias de Galapagos 62: 21-23
See you in your nightmares.